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globalwarming-2020

About Conference

Conference Series LLC Ltd takes the pleasure to welcome you to the International Summit on Global Warming and Environmental Science (Global Warming-2020) which will be held from August 10 -11, 2020 in Stockholm, Sweden. The theme of the conference is" Global Warming and Planning the Sustainable future ".

The International Summit on Global Warming and Environmental Science (Global Warming -2020) aims to bring researchers, scholars, scientists, policymakers, industry experts, biomedical specialists, environmental science community, academicians and weather scientists on one platform to showcase their research efforts.  We invite you all participants to attend the International Summit on Global Warming and Environmental Science from all around the world for a wonderful experience, networking opportunities, publishing and many more.

Global Warming : Global warming is the defined as gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to change in the Earth’s climate. The increased volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released by the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, agriculture, and other human activities, are believed to be the primary sources of the global warming. Changes resulting from global warming may include rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps, increase in occurrence and severity of storms and other severe weather events leading to natural calamities and disasters. A dangerous atmospheric deviation, be that as it may, is what might as well be called a nursery with high proficiency intelligent glass introduced the wrong path around

Environmental Scinece : Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanography, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography, and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.Related areas of study include environmental studies and environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space, and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis

Conference Objectives: The primary objective of the International Summit on Global Warming and Environmental sciences is to strengthen the worldwide response to the threat of temperature change and heating and position the planet on a safer and additional prosperous development path. Global Warming- 2020 may be a nice platform to developing nations to require data from developed nations to beat their challenges of reducing Global Warming. Meanwhile, the developed nations will grab the data to take care of their standing with a healthy climate : 

The  Global Warming -2020 is a multi–disciplinary international conference on all aspects of global warming including its causes, impacts and potential solutions. This conference aims to provide a forum for the exchange of technical information, dissemination of high-quality research results, presentation of new policy and scientific developments and promoting future priorities for a more sustainable development and energy security. Participants from all disciplines related to global warming (e.g. ecology, education, engineering, natural sciences, social sciences, economics, management, physical sciences, information technology, etc) are welcomed to contribute to this unique event.

Why to attend the conference :  

Global Warming Congress 2020 anticipates hundreds of delegates including international keynote lectures and oral presentations by renowned speakers and poster presentations by students, Exhibitions and delegates all around the world which will craft a platform for global promotion and effective development in this field. It provides international networking and opportunities for collaborations with worldwide companies and industries Global Warming Meets.

This global event will be an excellent opportunity for the Global Warming Scientists and other professionals. We are anticipating around 100+ speakers and over 200 delegates for this esteemed congress.

Target Audience of Global Warming Conference:

  • Academies
  • Researchers
  • Industries
  • Students
  • Ecologists
  • Meteorologist
  • Marine biologist
  • Oceanographer
  • Environmental researchers
  • Business entrepreneurs
  • Training institutes
  • Microbiologists
  • Chemical/Biological engineers
  • Biochemistry researchers
  • Environmental engineers
  • Waste management associations
  • Environmental and Climate Change Policy Analysts

Major Climate Change and Global Warming Related Associations around the Globe :

Earth System Governance Project (ESGP)

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

World Nature Organization (WNO)

 Earth Charter Initiative

 Earth Day Network

Green Actors of West Africa (GAWA)

Interamerican Association for Environmental Defense

 International Network for Sustainable Energy

List of environmental and conservation organizations in the United States

Sessions & Tracks

1. Climate Change:

Climate change also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. Climatology, the science of Climate and its relation to plant and animal life, is important in many fields, including agriculture, aviation, medicine, botany, zoology, geology, and geography. Changes in Climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area. Climatology, the science of Climate and its relation to plant and animal life, is important in many fields, including agriculture, aviation, medicine, botany, zoology, geology, and geography. Changes in Climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area.

  • Climate Change & Climatology
  • CO2 Responsible Climate Change
  • Sustainability & Climate Change
  • Climate Change Law & Policy
  • Space Monitoring of Climate Variables
  • Climate Change Economics
  • Climate Change Challenges
  • Effective Adaptation
  • Risks of Climate Change
  • Climate Hazards
  • CO2 Capture and Sequestration
  • Carbon Cycle
  • Climate Change & Health
  • Climate Change: Biodiversity Scenarios
  • Evidence of Climate Changes
  • Solutions for Climate Change

2. Greenhouse Effect:

The earth's atmosphere works like a glass greenhouse where plants are kept. When the sun's rays enter our atmosphere, most of it continues right down to the earth's surface. When they hit the soil and surface water, they release most of their energy in the form of heat. Some of the heat then radiates back out into space. However, there are certain gases like carbon dioxide and methane that absorb heat and radiate it back to the earth's surface. This helps to keep our atmosphere warm. These gases are therefore called greenhouse gases because of their heat-trapping ability. But the burning of fossil fuels has significantly increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. It has been estimated that the current concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is about 30 percent greater than it was 650,000 years ago. As a result, the temperature of the earth has increased drastically and natural calamities like droughts and floods are becoming more and more common.

3.Atmospheric Chemistry :

The chemical composition of the atmosphere has been changing rapidly over the last several decades. Global changes research has been successful in developing a scientific understanding of several of these changes such as stratospheric ozone depletion. The assessment and understanding of other problems such as tropospheric ozone and aerosols and their roles in climate and chemical processes remain largely inadequate.

4. Pollution Control :

Pollution is the presence of a pollutant in the environment and is often the result of human actions. Pollution has a detrimental effect on the environment. Animals, fish and other aquatic life, plants and humans all suffer when pollution is not controlled. In other words, Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes harmful and toxic effects to living things. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollution is often classified as point source pollution or non-point source pollution. Noise pollution, soil pollution and light pollution too are the damaging the environment at an alarming rate. Things as simple as light, sound and temperature can be considered pollutants when introduced artificially into an environment. Air pollution is by far the most harmful form of pollution in our environment. Air pollution is cause by the injurious smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains, and factories, namely sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Toxic pollution affects more than 200 million people worldwide. In some of the world’s worst polluted places, babies are born with birth defects, children have lost 30 to 40 IQ points, and life expectancy may be as low as 45 years because of cancers and other diseases.

Pollution & its Effects on Climate

Waste Water pollution

Carbon Cycle

Marine Pollution

Industrial Pollution

Pollution Control Technologies and Devices

Pollution Sources

Pollution and Health Effects

Air Pollution and Treatment

Pollution Solutions

Environmental Pollution

5. Ecology & Ecosystems:

Expectation of future worldwide natural changes requires a logical appraisal of the present state of earthly and marine biological communities and a comprehension of expansive scale earthbound and marine environmental procedures. Integrative earth framework models are imperative instruments for acclimatizing and requesting this environmental data.

Carbon Cycle : The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is traded among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and air of the Earth. Alongside the nitrogen cycle and the water cycle, the carbon cycle involves a succession of occasions that are vital to making the Earth fit for supporting life; it portrays the development of carbon as it is reused and reused all through the biosphere, including carbon sinks The worldwide carbon spending plan is the adjust of the trades (earnings and misfortunes) of carbon between the carbon supplies or between one particular circle (e.g., climate <-> biosphere) of the carbon cycle. An examination of the carbon spending plan of a pool or repository can give data about whether the pool or store is working as a source or sink for carbon dioxide. The carbon cycle was at first found by Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, and promoted by Humphry Davy Carbon-based atoms are essential for life on Earth, since it is the principle segment of organic mixes. Carbon is additionally a noteworthy segment of numerous minerals. Carbon additionally exists in different structures in the environment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is halfway in charge of the nursery impact and is the most vital human-contributed nursery gas.

6. Deforestration:

Deforestation, breathing space or clearing is the departure of a forest or stay of trees where the land is starting there changed over to a non-boondocks use. Instances of deforestation join change of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most moved deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. Around 30% of Earth's domain surface is secured by forests Deforestation occurs for various reasons: trees are cleaved down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes as charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as field for trained creatures and house. The departure of trees without sufficient reforestation has achieved mischief to normal environment, biodiversity hardship and aridity. It affects tricky influences bio sequestration of ecological carbon dioxide. Deforestation has moreover been used as a piece of war to prevent the enemy from claiming spread for its forces besides fundamental resources. Exhibit day instances of this were the use of Agent Orange by the British military in Malaya in the midst of the Malayan Emergency and the United States military in Vietnam in the midst of the Vietnam War. Beginning 2005, net deforestation rates have halted to increase in countries with a for each capita GDP of in any occasion US$4,600. Deforested ranges regularly realize basic threatening soil deterioration and a significant part of the time degrade into a dead zone. Something close to 2000 and 2012, 2.3 million square kilometers (890,000 square miles) of forests the world over were chopped down. As a result of deforestation, only 6.2 million square kilometers (2.4 million square miles) remain of the initial 16 million square kilometers (6 million square miles) of timberland that already secured the Earth.

7. Natural Hazards :

It is the science that deals with origin, evolution, structure, composition and behavior of Earth's landscapes, places and environments. It includes the studies of assessing environmental studies, spatial studies and satellite events. It is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems. It includes Hydrogeology, Environmental Mineralogy, Hydro geochemistry, Soil Mechanics. The fundamentals concepts of environmental geology are Human population growth, Sustainability, Earth as a system, Hazardous earth processes which involves geologic hazards, natural resources, and topical issues of concern to society such as climate change and provides sound advice about how humanity can live responsibly and sustainably on Earth. Environmental geology applies geologic information to the solution, prediction and study of geologic problems such as Earth materials, Natural hazards, Landscape evaluation, Environmental impact analysis and remediation. Forces within the Earth create mountain ranges and ocean basins and drive the movements of continents. Wind, water and ice shapes the surface of the Earth, making and changing the landscapes.

Alarming alerts and Early warning systems

Disaster Risk Management

Geographic Information

Ecosystems and Biodiversity

Space Disasters

Health Disasters & Epidemics

Geological disasters and Earthquakes

8. Fossil Fuels and Energy:

Fossil empowers are powers molded by ordinary systems, for instance, anaerobic decay of secured dead living beings, containing essentialness starting in antiquated photosynthesis. The age of the living things and their ensuing fossil forces is generally an extensive number of years, and as a less than dependable rule outperforms 650 million years Fossil forces contain high rates of carbon and consolidate oil, coal, and trademark gas Fossil empowers keep running from temperamental materials with low carbon: hydrogen extents like methane, to liquids like oil, to nonvolatile materials made out of for all intents and purposes faultless carbon, as Bacillus anthraces refer to coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields either alone, associated with oil, or as methane clath rates. The Energy Information Administration surveys that in 2007 the fundamental wellsprings of imperativeness included oil 36.0%, coal 27.4%, basic gas 23.0%, signifying a 86.4% offer for fossil powers in basic essentialness use on the planet. Non-fossil sources in 2006 included nuclear 8.5%, hydroelectric 6.3%, and others (geothermal, sun powered , tidal, wind, wood, waste) signifying 0.9%. World imperativeness use was getting to be around 2.3% consistently The theory that fossil forces molded from the fossilized remains of dead plants by introduction to warmth and weight in the Earth's covering over an immense number of years[5] was at first displayed byGeorgius Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in the eighteenth century.

9. Environmental toxicology:

Environmental toxicology deals with the adverse effects of environmental toxicants on health and the environment. Environmental toxicants are agents released into the overall environment that can cause adverse effects on health. The word “health” here refers to not only social health but also the health of animals and plants. The study of environmental toxicology stems from the recognition that Human survival depends upon the well-being of other species and upon the availability of clean air, water and food and Anthropogenic chemicals as well as naturally occurring chemicals can have detrimental effects on existing organisms and ecological processes. Environmental toxicology is thus concerned with how environmental toxicants, through their contact with humans, animals, and plants, influence the health and welfare of these organisms.

  • Ecotoxicology
  • Human Genotoxicology
  • Environmental Health and Safety
  • Economic Toxicology
  • Medical Toxicology
  • Food Toxicology
  • Health Economics and Public Policies

10.RenewableEnergy &Resources:

Renewable energy is gaining increasing importance in today’s world. In addition to the rising costs of fossil fuels and the threat of climate change, there have been a lot of positive developments in this field including improved fuel efficiency and reduced prices. Sunlight, geothermal energy, and wind are examples of renewable energy. These energy sources are inexhaustible and constantly replenished. Renewable energy plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Also, the demand for fossil fuels goes down when renewable energy products are used.

11. Sustainability:

Sustainability can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal, An ideal is by definition unattainable in a given time and space. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. The study of ecology believes that sustainability is achieved through the balance of species and the resources within their environment. In order to maintain this equilibrium, available resources must not be depleted faster than resources are naturally generated.

12. Environmental Engineering:

Environmental engineering is a professional engineering discipline that takes from broad scientific topics like chemistry, biology, ecology, geology, hydraulics, hydrology, microbiology, and mathematics to create solutions that will protect and also improves the health of living organisms and improve the quality of the environment. Environmental engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering , chemical engineering and mechanical engineering.

13. Agriculture & Food Security :

Agriculture conference focuses on the topic of food security and welcomes to all person who related to food security. A policy orientation for food security and safety include state-wise, previous, current and future policy issues, and cope-wise sustainability of agriculture. The particular part of food distribution in our society can be examined through the research of the changes in the food supply chain. Globalization, in particular, has significant effects on the food supply chain by validating scale effect in the food distribution industry. Provision of an adequate amount of essential nutrients to human beings has ever been the challenge in the province of food security. Hence, malnutrition is heavily interlinked to food security consideration, yet difficult to be eliminated. food security and policy, therefore, become magnetic in the province of research.

  • Food and nutrition security
  • Sustainable intensification of food production systems
  • Innovative ways of feeding increasing population
  • Food storage and technology
  • Fermentation Technology and Cereals
  • Food packaging
  • Post Harvest Handling and Processing

14. Plant Science and Biotechnology :

Agriculture conference focuses on the topic of plant science and invited to all student scientist and professor who related to plant sciencePlant Science will accelerate the application of gene technology to agriculture. The scope of the plant science ranges from developing molecular techniques for genetic engineering to ecological research in the field of plant science. Ultimately the natural products want to contribute to a fundamental knowledge of basic biological processes related to development and health and the sustainable production of more healthy foods, flowers, and high-value biobased products. By accelerating the application of technology, plant genomics significantly increases the value of seeds and agricultural products. This increase adds much wealth to the customers, company owners, employees, and citizens of the nations in which genetic supply companies operate, and to both producing and importing nations whose food costs consequently are decreased.

Plant science and natural products

Plant genome sciences

Medicinal and aromatic plant sciences

lant synthetic biology and plant transcriptome

Arabidopsis research

Plant tissue culture

Plant physiology and biochemistry

Plant Biotechnology

Plant pathology and plant-micro-biology

 15.  Environmental Geology : 

Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of science associated with the world Earth. This is often a branch of science managing the physical constitution of the world and its atmosphere. Earth science is that the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. The numerous purpose of the world sciences is to acknowledge the present capabilities and therefore the past evolution of the world and to use this information, whereby acceptable, for the advantage of human race. Some earth scientists use their information of the world to find and develop energy and natural resource. Others study the impact of human action on Earth's environment, and style ways to protect the world.

  • Earth sciences graphics software
  • Environmental Geo-science
  • Glossary of geology terms
  • Structure of the Earth
  • GEO-LEO (GEO Library Experts Online)

16. Green Chemistry: 

Green chemistry emerged from a variety of existing ideas and research efforts (such as atom economy and catalysis) in the period leading up to the 1990s, in the context of increasing attention to problems of chemical pollution and resource depletion. The development of green chemistry in Europe and the United States was linked to a shift in environmental problem-solving strategies: a movement from command and control regulation and mandated reduction of industrial emissions at the "end of the pipe," toward the active prevention of pollution through the innovative design of production technologies themselves.

For a technology to be considered Green Chemistry, it must accomplish three things:

  • It must be more environmentally benign than existing alternatives.
  • It must be more economically viable than existing alternatives.
  • It must be functionally equivalent to or outperform existing alternatives.

Green Chemistry presents industries with incredible opportunity for growth and competitive advantage. This is because there is currently a significant shortage of green technologies: we estimate that only 10% of current technologies are environmentally benign; another 25% could be made benign relatively easily. The remaining 65% have yet to be invented! Green Chemistry also creates cost savings: when hazardous materials are removed from materials and processes, all hazard-related costs are also removed, such as those associated with handling, transportation, disposal, and compliance. Through Green Chemistry, environmentally benign alternatives to current materials and technologies can be systematically introduced across all types of manufacturing to promote a more environmentally and economically sustainable future.

17. CO2 Capture and Sequestration: 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In 2013, CO2 accounted for about 82% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals). Carbon dioxide is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface as it is both produced and absorbed by many microorganisms, plants, and animals. However, emissions and removal of CO2 by these natural processes tend to balance

18. Biodiversity Conservation : 

Biodiversity helps in maintaining climate change and also prevents natural calamities. Biodiversity helps to regulate the nutrient cycle, water (e.g. floods) and mitigates impacts of climate change. In simple terms, it is the variability and variety of living organisms together with ecological facilities in which they exist. Let us try to understand biodiversity as a whole and biodiversity conservation which has become a major issue in this developing age. This conference will provide a platform to discuss on biodiversity and ecology restoration for the beneficial of mankind.

19. Energy Conservation:

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of service used (for example, by driving less). Energy conservation is the decision and practice of using less energy. Turning off the light when you leave the room, unplugging appliances when they’re not in use and walking instead of driving are all examples of energy conservation. The two main reasons people conserve energy are to gain more control over their energy bill and reduce the demand on the earth’s natural resources.

20. Waste management & Treatment:

Waste management techniques are useful to minimize or reduce the waste in environment and these will helpful to keep the environment clean. Commonly used waste management techniques are Ocean Dumping, Sanitary Landfill, Incineration, Recycling, and Composting etc. waste management techniques involves Mechanical and biological waste treatment, Mechanical sorting of wastes, Resource recovery from waste, Methods of Waste Disposal, Recovery and Recycling. All these techniques are useful to minimize the waste in the environment however these are also have some advantages and disadvantages. Recycling is the best waste management technique among all these and the advantage of recycling is key to providing a liviable environment for the future.

21. Soil Science:

The worldwide agrochemical showcase was esteemed at $197.9 billion out of 2014. This market is required to reach almost $207.9 billion out of 2015 and $257.5 billion out of 2019, subsequent to expanding at a compound yearly development rate (CAGR) of 5.4% from 2014 to 2019.

  • Soil Fertility and Soil Biochemistry Experts Meeting
  • Soil Erosion and soil management
  • Sustainable Soils and Soil Geology
  • Soil Morphology
  • Soil Remediation
  • Soil and Plant Analysis
  • Soil Health
  • Plant Soil Science
  • Plant Soil Science

22. Hydrology And Water Resources: 

Hydrology is the logical investigation of the development, appropriation, and nature of water on Earth and different planets, including the water cyclewater assets and ecological watershed manageability. A specialist of hydrology is a hydrologist, working inside the fields of earth or ecological science, physical topography, geography or common and natural engineering.Using different diagnostic strategies and logical procedures, they gather and investigate information to help tackle water related issues, for example, ecological conservation, catastrophic events, and water administration. Hydrology subdivides into surface water hydrology, groundwater hydrology (hydrogeology), and marine hydrology. Areas of hydrology incorporate hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, seepage bowl administration and water quality, where water assumes the focal part. Oceanography and meteorology are excluded in light of the fact that water is just a single of numerous critical angles inside those fields.

23. Oceanography and Marine Biology:

Oceanology is the branch of Geography that studies the sea. It covers an extensive variety of subjects, including biological system elements; sea streams, waves, and geophysical liquid progression; plate tectonics and the topography of the ocean bottom; and fluxes of different synthetic substances and physical properties inside the sea and over its limits. These assorted subjects mirror different controls that oceanographers mix to further information of the World Sea and comprehension of Procedures inside space science, science, science, climatology, topography, geography, hydrology, meteorology and material science. Pale oceanography concentrates on the historical backdrop of the seas in the geologic past. Branches are of four sort's Biological oceanography, Chemical oceanography, Geological oceanography, Physical oceanography.

  • Oceans & Climate Change
  • Marine Data Management
  • Marine Engineering and Technology
  • Coastal Oceanography
  • Oceans and Climate Change
  • Marine Pollution
  • Ocean Biogeochemistry
  • Physical Oceanography

Market Analysis

Global Warming  is a result of the greatest market failure that the world has seen, Sir Nicholas Stern, whose review last year warned of the economic and social costs of climate change, said tonight.

Delivering the Royal Economic Society (RES) public lecture in Manchester, ahead of next week's world summit on climate change in Bali, Sir Nicholas said targets and trading must be at the heart of a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. "The problem of climate change involves a fundamental failure of markets: those who damage others by emitting greenhouse gases generally do not pay," said Sir Nicholas.

"Climate change is a result of the greatest market failure the world has seen. The evidence on the seriousness of the risks from inaction or delayed action is now overwhelming. We risk damages on a scale larger than the two world wars of the last century. The problem is global and the response must be collaboration on a global scale." He added that rich countries must lead the way in taking action. "That means adopting ambitious emissions reduction targets; encouraging effective market mechanisms; supporting programs to combat deforestation; promoting rapid technological progress to mitigate the effects of climate change; and honoring their aid commitments to the developing world," he said. Sir Nicholas used the RES lecture - entitled, Climate Change, Ethics and the Economics of the Global Deal - to set out a six-point global deal for tackling climate change.

The first involves rich countries reducing their greenhouse emissions by at least 80% - either directly or through trading schemes - in order that the overall 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050 is met. Secondly he called for substantial trade between countries, including rich and poor countries, in greenhouse gas emissions. The third point requires a major reform of the clean development mechanism, a Kyoto protocol mechanism that allows developing countries to sell emission reductions, but does not penalize them for emissions themselves, making it a "one-sided trade mechanism", said Sir Nicholas.

He also argued for an international program to combat deforestation, which contributes 15-20% of greenhouse gas emissions. "For $10-15bn (£4.8-7.2bn) per year, a program could be constructed that could stop up to half the deforestation," he said. There also needs to be urgent promotion of rapid technological advance for climate change mitigation, said Sir Nicholas.

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for coal is particularly urgent since coal-fired electric power is currently the dominant technology round the world and emerging nations will be investing heavily in these technologies, he said. "For $5bn a year, in terms of feed-in tariffs (which could be reduced as carbon prices rise), it should be possible to create 30 commercial scale coal-fired CCS stations within seven or eight years. Unless the rich world demonstrates, and quickly, that CCS works, developing countries cannot be expected to commit to this technology." The final plank in Sir Nicholas's action plan is for rich countries to honor their commitments to 0.7% of GDP in aid by 2015. This would yield increases in flows of $150-200bn per year. The extra costs developing countries face as a result of climate change are likely to be upwards of $80bn per year and it is vital that extra resources are available for new initiatives. "The problem is deeply inequitable with the rich countries having caused the bulk of current stocks of greenhouse gases and the poor countries being hit earliest and hardest - which means that the rich countries must take the lead," he said.

"Within different countries, there will be different choices of instruments - such as taxes, trading and standards - and different technological mixes.

"In all countries, there is scope for energy efficiency, which both reduces emissions and saves money. But trading must be a central part of the story because it can provide the international incentives for participation, and promote efficiency and equity, while controlling quantities of emissions."

Global Warming and Climate Change in the World : 

 

 

 

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Conference Date August 10-11, 2020 |

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